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Young Professionals 2022

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The Next Generation in Cryogenics and Superconductivity. This feature introduces outstanding young professionals (under 40 years of age) who are doing interesting things in cryogenics and superconductivity and who show promise of making a difference in their fields. Debuted in the Summer 2006 issue, the feature has presented many young persons whom we are proud to see have indeed lived up to that promise.

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Misconceptions in Cryogenic Heat Management

Liquid nitrogen cold shock of a flight tank simulator. Image: James FesmireMisconceptions abound in the world, and some are more important to address than others. In the area of cryogenic heat management there are misconceptions that usually have no ill effect but sometimes can become big stumbling blocks. These center around the confusion of temperature and heat (with the word “thermal” thrown in here and there). Temperature is an indicator of what the heat is doing, but it is not heat.

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DESI Creates Largest 3D Map of the Cosmos

DESI’s three-dimensional “CT scan” of the Universe. The earth is in the lower left, looking out over 5 billion light years in the direction of the constellation Virgo. As the video progresses, the perspective sweeps toward the constellation Bootes. Each colored point represents a galaxy, which in turn is composed of hundreds of billions of stars. Gravity has pulled the galaxies into a “cosmic web” of dense clusters, filaments and voids. Image: D. Schlegel/Berkeley Lab using data from DESIThe Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) has capped off the first seven months of its survey run by smashing through all previous records for three-dimensional galaxy surveys, creating the largest and most detailed map of the universe ever. Yet it’s only about 10% of the way through its five-year mission. Once completed, that phenomenally detailed 3D map will yield a better understanding of dark energy, and thereby give physicists and astronomers a better understanding of the past – and future – of the universe. Meanwhile, the impressive technical performance and literally cosmic achievements of the survey thus far are helping scientists reveal the secrets of the most powerful sources of light in the universe. DESI is an international science collaboration managed by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) with primary funding for construction and operations from DOE’s Office of Science.

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James Webb Telescope in Cooling Process

Webb’s primary mirror undergoing cryogenic testing back in 2011. Credit: NASACooling things down in space is trickier than it might sound, but that is exactly the process the James Webb telescope is going through right now. Getting down to cryogenic temperature is imperative for its infrared imaging systems to work correctly. While the telescope has already started, it will be another few weeks before the process is complete and it's ready to capture its first groundbreaking infrared images of the universe. That might seem like an exceptionally long time to cool something down; however, it's par for the course in space.

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Custom Manufacturing of MLI Blankets: Top Three Outsourcing Considerations

When OEMs and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) partner on custom MLI blankets, the OEM typically supplies a 3D model of the product requiring insulation. The CMO uses this model to develop a 3D blanket design, then transforms that 3D design into a 2D pattern, cuts insulation material layers into pattern pieces, and sews the pieces into a 3D blanket to fit over the product. Image courtesy of Web Industries. Image: Web Industries, Inc.Multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets must conform to exacting specifications to insulate high value products, from MRI machine components in the medical sector to satellites and other spacecraft.  Partnering with an MLI blanket contract manufacturer relieves the OEM of many processing steps and can expedite production cycle time for these highly customized products. In this article, we will discuss three of the most important considerations to keep in mind when deciding whether to outsource custom MLI blanket manufacturing and what capabilities to seek in a contract manufacturing organization (CMO). 

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DOE Establishes New Office of Clean Energy Demonstrations

On December 21, the US Department of Energy (DOE) announced the establishment of the Office of Clean Energy Demonstrations, a new DOE office that will help deliver new, good-paying jobs for American families and workers, and reduce pollution while benefitting disadvantaged communities. The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law provides more than $20 billion to establish the Office of Clean Energy Demonstrations and support clean energy technology demonstration projects in areas including clean hydrogen, carbon capture, grid-scale energy storage, small modular reactors and more.

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Scientists Produce First In-Vitro Lion Embryos

Freshly isolated African lion oocytes. Credit: Jennifer Zahmel/Leibniz-IZWA team of scientists have succeeded in producing the very first African lion in-vitro embryos after the vitrification of immature oocytes. For this specific method of cryopreservation, the scientists, who hail from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) in Germany, Givskud Zoo–Zootopia in Denmark, and the University of Milan, collected oocytes directly after an animal was castrated or deceased and immediately froze them at -196°C in liquid nitrogen. This technique allows the storage of oocytes of valuable animals for an unlimited time so they can be used to produce offspring with the help of assisted reproduction techniques. The aim is to further improve and apply these methods to save highly endangered species, such as the Asiatic lion, from extinction. The current research on African lions as a model species is an important step in this direction. The results are reported in the scientific journal, Cryobiology.

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Researchers Reveal Electronic Nature of Charge Density Wave and Electron-Phonon Coupling In Kagome Superconductor

Crystal structure and Fermi surface of KV3Sb5. Credit: Institute of PhysicsRecently, the Kagome superconductors AV3Sb5 (A = K, Rb and Cs) have attracted enormous attention due to their novel phenomena and rich physics. They exhibit unconventional charge density wave (CDW), giant anomalous Hall effect, and superconductivity. The CDW state is intimately related to the anomalous Hall effect and competes with superconductivity under pressure. Investigating the electronic structure of the CDW state is essential to understand its nature and the related physical properties.

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Cryoport and Cell Matters Enter Into Strategic Partnership

Cryoport, Inc., a temperature-controlled supply chain solutions provider for the life sciences industry, announces that it has entered into a strategic partnership with Cell Matters, S.A. to deliver to the life sciences industry end-to-end cryopreservation services for leukapheresis derived therapies supporting both autologous and allogeneic cell therapies. The companies will jointly develop the commercial approach for marketing these services.

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Demaco Releases New Range of Cryogenic Valves

Demaco’s Cryogenic ValvesValve manufacturer Demaco Netherlands BV (Demaco) has announced the release of its new range of Demaco Cryogenic Valves. Having redesigned and improved its current valve range, which includes manual on/off, pneumatic on/off, and control valves, the company has overhauled its technology to help increase the area of usage. 

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Boeing Achieves Major Advance in Using Composites for Cryogenic Fuel Tanks

Cryogenic fuel tank. Credit: BoeingBoeing has announced a technology breakthrough for cryogenic fuel tanks. These tanks are essential components of liquid-fueled rockets because they hold the liquid hydrogen and the liquid oxygen that act as the fuel. They could also play a very important role in the development of long-haul, zero-emission flight, carrying liquid hydrogen as jet engine fuel.

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#BlackInQuantum

Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana KovaBlack scientists have played important roles in the history of quantum physics. In this growing area of specialization, there’s an opportunity to continue that legacy. The sixth person to earn a doctoral degree in physics from an American institution was African American scientist Edward Alexander Bouchet; it was 1876, just 11 years after the US had adopted a constitutional amendment that outlawed slavery. Never again have African Americans made up such a large percentage of US physicists. In fact, it would take another 42 years before a second African American man earned a physics PhD in the United States. 

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Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) Creates Largest 3D Map of the Cosmos

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) has capped off the first seven months of its survey run by smashing through all previous records for three-dimensional galaxy surveys, creating the largest and most detailed map of the universe ever. Yet it’s only about 10% of the way through its five-year mission. Once completed, that phenomenally detailed 3D map will yield a better understanding of dark energy, and thereby give physicists and astronomers a better understanding of the past – and future – of the universe. Meanwhile, the impressive technical performance and literally cosmic achievements of the survey thus far are helping scientists reveal the secrets of the most powerful sources of light in the universe. DESI is an international science collaboration managed by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) with primary funding for construction and operations from DOE’s Office of Science.

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Valcor Releases New White Paper on Cryogenic Launch Vehicle Valves

Launch vehicles, particularly the upper stages, often use cryogenic rocket propellants such as liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen and liquid methane because of their high specific impulse and high storage density. The pressurization, control and distribution of these propellants requires sophisticated valving that can operate and seal at these extreme temperatures.

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NASA Hall of Fame Inventor, Cold Facts Columnist James E. Fesmire Named GenH2’s Chief Technology Officer

On December 15, GenH2, a leading developer of liquid hydrogen infrastructure solutions, formally announced the appointment of renowned NASA veteran and company co-founder James E. Fesmire as Chief Architect and Chief Technology Officer. In his role, Fesmire will shape GenH2’s technology vision and drive product evolution and expansion. Known for his world-class expertise and trailblazing contributions to developing cryogenics, materials, and energy technologies, Fesmire specializes in all aspects of liquid hydrogen storage and transfer.

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Particle Accelerator Magnet Sets Record Using High Temperature Superconductor

Henryk Piekarz of Fermilab’s Accelerator Division controls the flow of cryogens in the high-temperature superconductor magnet prototype. Image: Ryan Postel, FermilabCost- and energy-efficient rapid cycling magnets for particle accelerators are critical for particle physics research. Their performance determines how frequently a circular particle accelerator can receive a bunch of particles, propel them to higher energy, send them to an experiment or target station, and then repeat all over again. A small team of physicists, engineers and technicians at the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab, CSA CSM), led by Henryk Piekarz, demonstrated the world’s fastest magnetic ramping rates for particle accelerator magnets. Noteworthy, they achieved this record by using magnets made with energy-efficient, high temperature superconducting material.

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The Second Quantum Revolution

For physicists trying to harness the power of electricity, no tool was more important than the vacuum tube. This lightbulb-like device controlled the flow of electricity and could amplify signals. In the early 20th century, vacuum tubes were used in radios, televisions and long-distance telephone networks. But vacuum tubes had significant drawbacks: They generated heat; they were bulky; and they had a propensity to burn out. Physicists at Bell Labs, a spin-off of AT&T, were interested in finding a replacement.

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NSF Grant Funds New 40T Superconducting Magnet Design

A new $15.8 million grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) will produce a detailed design for the world’s most powerful superconducting magnet at the Florida State University-headquartered National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (CSA CSM). While the National MagLab is already home to more than a dozen world-record magnets used by researchers from around the world, the future 40-tesla magnet will advance the study of quantum matter with its low-noise environment that surpasses present-day resistive and hybrid magnets.

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Webb Space Telescope Will “Revolutionize Our Understanding” of the Universe

On December 25, the largest and most powerful space telescope ever constructed by NASA was successfully launched from Earth. With unprecedented technology, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will peer both near and far, from the planets and bodies in our solar system to the deepest reaches of space, where the first stars and galaxies formed more than 13 billion years ago. JWST has a mirror that is 21.3 feet (6.5 meters) across, making it physically much larger than the Hubble Space Telescope and Hubble’s infrared sister telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by Caltech’s IPAC; it also has state-of-the-art photon detectors that register a wider range of wavelengths and enable deeper and more detailed views than Spitzer.

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CryoHiVac Investigates Cryogenic Market, Affordability from Earth to Space

Today’s time-sensitive market needs revolutionization of traditional costly technologies. The cryogenic and electronic market development and utilization started from 1970 for commercial applications, and both are fast-growing technologies. There has been significant advancement of electronic products. Nowadays, a small smartphone has much more data storage and processing power capability than large costly computers in the 1970s. Smartphones are now available to most people due to low cost. Due to affordable cost and high utilization factor, the electronic product demand is always increasing. In contrast, cryogenic products are exceptionally expensive, making them inaccessible to most people.

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